Updated: Sep 20, 2021
It is suggested by Scientists of the Theory ‘Ageing by program’, that cells only have a limited number of times they can divide by mitosis.
The purpose of mitosis is so cells can reproduce, regenerate and promote growth and repair. It is a process where a singular mature parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells.
Each time a cell divides, the telomeres at the end of the chromosome become shorter until they are so short that they can no longer divide. The actual number of times a cell can divide is said to be down to genetics and what we inherit from our parents. The variation of telomer length is also associated with our lifespan.
During our lifetime, according to the ‘Gene Mutation Theory.’ As our cells divide, some cells will mutate and will be copied incorrectly, resulting in cells having an incorrect number of chromosomes, leading to a defective cell; that can only receive half of the information that is needed for it to function to its full capacity . These protein synthesis errors could also cause the cell to become toxic leading to skin cancers. These faults are not always because of genetics. They can also occur due to lifestyle. for example; smoking, UV Exposure, Diet, Stress as well as many other factors.
These faulty cells which have also now lost their capability to divide; will start to become larger.
As stated in the ‘Cross linkage Theory’. The cross linking of protein molecule bonds affect the membrane-transport of the cell, reducing the efficiency of the cell being able to remove waste which is why it becomes larger. Because of this. and the reduced cell and tissue function, there will be a gradual decrease in the size/volume of the tissue (skin) until the cell becomes unable to function properly eventually leading to Apoptosis (cell death). Leading to wrinkles, furrows, loss of volume.
Antioxidants can help to prevent the ageing process because they can help to speed up the process of cell division, boost immunity as well as neutralize the harmful effects of free radicals
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